The misogyny and patriarchy across the Arab world are, unfortunately, alive and well. The nurturing of such systems - through discriminatory laws - has allowed society to believe men have the right to patrol women's bodies and actions.
If you need valid examples of people who have publicized their misogyny unashamedly in the Arab world, here are five times it's happened in recent years:
1. When Saudi social media personality said it "depends on how a woman handles herself around men"
In 2017, Saudi makeup artist and social media personality Sarah Al Wadani said women who are subject to harassment are to blame. In a video posted to Snapchat, Al Wadani said:
"I launched my career in 2013, and in all my years of work I've never been harassed in any way even though I work with men every single day. It all really depends on how a woman handles herself around men, how she behaves and talks to them that makes a difference here."
Al Wadani's statements were heavily criticized on Twitter. Amid intense backlash, the social media personality issued a clarification. In it, she explained that she didn't mean "sexual harassment" but "flirtation". However, verbal harassment, including flirtation, is still an offense that is never the victim's fault, despite the situation.
2. When an Egyptian lawyer said it's a "national duty" to rape women in ripped jeans
In 2017, Egyptian lawyer Nabih al-Wahsh shared his misogynistic views on TV, in which he stated that women who wear ripped jeans, specifically from the back, deserve to be sexually harassed and raped.
Wahsh made the statement during the Infirad Show, hosted by Saeed Hassaseen, sparking outrage in the country at the time. Elaborating further, Wahsh also said that it is a "national duty" to rape women who wear such clothes as they are "inviting men to harass them".
"Girls must respect themselves so others respect them. Protecting morals is more important than protecting borders," said Wahsh, according to Al Arabiya.
Maya Mursi, the Head of the National Council for Women Rights (NCWR) said Wahsh's remarks are a "flagrant call" for rape and violate everything in the Egyptian constitution.
3. When a Saudi preacher said women provoke men to "rape and harass them"
In 2017, controversial Saudi preacher Ahmed Bin Saad Al Qarni sparked outrage on Twitter after sharing a series of offensive tweets in which he said: "women instigate men to rape and assault them".
Al Qarni shared his misogynistic views in a tweet, which was accompanied by a video of Saudi women getting into a car with men. In his commentary, the so-called preacher said:
"Yes, women are the cause of adultery and sexual harassment. Look at the woman in this video, she made the men go mad. Don't blame men," he stated.
In another tweet, Al Qarni said that a woman who wears makeup and perfume is an adulteress.
"A good woman who's wearing a kitchen apron will never leave her house looking like that," he added.
4. When this Jordanian TV presenter justified rape by blaming women's "choice of attire"
In 2017, Jordanian TV presenter Mohammad Rakan al-Gadah was at the center of controversy after sharing his regressive beliefs on what women should and shouldn't wear in a video that sparked outrage in the country.
In a Facebook live rant, which lasted for well over 10 minutes, the media personality justified rape, femicide, homicide, and crime - by pinning the blame on women and specifically the way they choose to dress.
He also said that he wishes he could "beat up" women for dressing inappropriately. The hate did not stop there. He went a step further and body shamed plus-size women who do not submit to his idea of a "proper dress code". The video was eventually taken down. Gadah issued a public apology amid the backlash at the time.
5. When Lebanon's Nadine Njeim argued against gender equality
In 2012, Nadine Njeim - a former Lebanese beauty queen - shared her sexist views in an interview with Future TV, claiming that pre-marital sex is acceptable for men but not for women. She explained that it's a woman's duty to protect her virginity prior to marriage. She added that she wouldn't want her own daughter to give in to insecurities from societal pressures.
She's added that she's all for women "traveling, partying and having a good time". However, when it comes to sex, she would rather her daughter abstain from it. Njeim used religion as a backup for her argument, pointing out that it "is unlawful to have sexual relations prior to marriage in all religions, whether Islam, Christianity or Judaism".
However, religion does not differentiate between genders when it comes to pre-marital sex. What was an innocent argument transformed into a sexist one, ultimately putting Njeim in the spotlight for years.