For decades, Saudi Arabia was a tax-free haven for nationals and expats alike, but that's not really the case anymore.
As global oil prices plummeted, the kingdom began putting more effort into diversifying its petrol-reliant economy. From launching Vision 2030 to developing its tourism sector, officials have implemented different systems in a bid to achieve the set economic goals. One such system is the introduction of taxes, a move that's expected to bring in billions.
From the expat tax to the sin tax, here's a look at all the excises passed by the kingdom in the past couple of years:
1. Company Expat Tax
In January 2018, Saudi Arabia implemented a bill that forces private companies to pay a fee for every foreign worker employed.
The fees proposed under the original scheme amounted to 300 riyals ($80) for every work permit. They were meant to increase to 600 riyals ($160) in 2019 and 800 riyals ($213) in 2020. However, in the months after its implementation, private companies couldn't manage to pay the fees while keeping their profits in check.
This pushed authorities to launch a plan to support these institutions. Last month, the country announced that it will temporarily cover the cost of the mandatory fees for licensed industrial companies over the next five years.
2. Personal Expat Tax
Saudi Arabia's first-ever expat tax went into effect on July 1, 2017. The levy, which affects expatriates and their dependents, is paid annually when a residence visa is sent for renewal or when a new visa is being issued.
It is set at a monthly SAR100 ($26) per person, a rate that is expected to increase gradually every year until 2020.
3. Sin Tax
In June 2017, the kingdom became the first Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) country to impose a 100 percent excise tax on tobacco products and energy drinks, in addition to a 50 percent tax on soft drinks.
Dubbed "sin tax," the excise came during a period of transformation in the kingdom and aimed to help diversify sources of income under Vision 2030.
At the time, experts estimated that the excise's revenues will reach between 8 to 10 billion riyals ($2.1-$2.7 billion) within six months of implementation.
4. The E-Cigarette Tax
An expansion to the kingdom's "sin tax" made earlier this year saw the inclusion of electronic cigarettes and sweetened drinks.
The decision came into effect earlier this year after it was announced by the kingdom's General Authority of Zakat and Tax (GAZT) on May 15. The authority said a 100 percent tax will be imposed on e-cigarettes and related products, and a 50 percent tax on sugary drinks.
These selective taxes fall into a category of levies imposed on products deemed harmful to public health.
5. Shisha Tax
This month, the kingdom's "shisha tax" went into effect. The excise imposes a 100 percent tax on food and beverages in all restaurants and cafes that serve tobacco.
From now on, customers of food outlets serving tobacco products will have to pay the tax and that's irrespective of whether they smoke or not. The 100 percent levy will be added to the already implemented five percent VAT.
The tax is already facing heavy criticism from both restaurant owners and the public. A few local eateries have already stopped serving shisha to avoid losing customers over the matter. Before it was implemented, local economists warned that this specific levy could end up shutting down over 60 percent of cafes and eateries across the kingdom.
6. Value Added Tax (VAT)
The five percent tax applies to most products and services provided in the kingdom excluding health, social services, and education.
At the time of its launch, the excise left many expats who live and work in the kingdom concerned over the affordability of life in the country amid the economic changes.