The charges against Rajab have not yet been announced.
The United Nations high commissioner for human rights said in a speech on Monday that at least 250 people had lost their Bahraini citizenship in recent years "because of their alleged disloyalty to the interests of the kingdom."
“We will not allow the undermining of our security and stability and will not waste our time listening to the words of a high commissioner who is powerless,” Bahrain's Foreign Minister Khalid Al Khalifa tweeted.
Many have taken to Twitter to express their support for Rajab and his family in an attempt to #FreeNabeelRajab.
Bahrain suspended the country's largest political group Al Wefaq on Tuesday with plans to close the group's headquarters and freeze the group's financial assets.
Rajab, the president of the Bahrain Center for Human Rights, was imprisoned in 2015 for three months for criticizing the treatment of political prisoners online. Rajab also faced a six-month sentence that same year for insulting the Defense and Interior ministries on Twitter.
Rajab's arrest comes a week after activist Zeinab Al Khawaja left Bahrain following her release from jail on "humanitarian grounds."